Ovulation induction is a treatment that aimed to increase the pregnancy probability by increasing the follicular grow up and maturation. The most frequent complication is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Pleural effusion and abdominal ascites accumulation is frequently accompany this syndrome. A young patient receiving ovulation induction therapy was admitted to our department with sudden chest pain and dyspnea. Exudative pleural effusion was determined in the right and we suggest that pleural effusion was accumulated due to OHSS because of the presence of abdominal ascites, hemoconcentration, recent application of ovulation induction therapy and elimination of other causative factors for pleural effusion. The disappearance of pleural effusion spontaneously in a week support our idea. We reviewed the literature about the pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in young female patients, the accumulation of pleural effusion due to the recent ovulation induction story should be kept in mind which is especially important in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism.