Blood-repellent and anti-corrosive surface by spin-coated SWCNT layer on intravascular stent materials

Creative Commons License

İstanbullu Ö. B., Akdoğan G.

Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine, vol.46, no.1, pp.227-243, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13246-022-01212-5
  • Journal Name: Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.227-243
  • Keywords: Bare metal stents, Surface modification, Nanoparticles, SWCNT, Blood-repellent surfaces, Anti-corrosive feature, CORROSION-RESISTANCE, IMPLANTATION, ENERGY, FILM, SUPERHYDROPHOBICITY, DEPOSITION, LEAF
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Despite intravascular bare metallic stents (BMS) being indispensable products in cardiovascular surgery, they face in-stent restenosis (ISR), resulting in stent failure or secondary surgical operation necessity. Accumulation or corrosion processes are key factors that promote ISR development in a vascular pathway, including an intravascular stent. The ISR can be inhibited by increasing the blood-repellency, and electrochemical corrosion resistance features using surface modification techniques on intravascular stent materials. In this study, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube (SWCNT) structures were deposited using the spin-coating method on stent specimens made of 316L, 316LVM, CoCr-alloy, and Ti-alloy. Hydrophobicity and blood-repellency functions of coated and uncoated specimens were analysed by the Contact Angle (CA) values for distilled water (DIW), glycerol, blood plasma, and total-blood droplets using a computer-controlled goniometer system. Using a potentiostat, the electrochemical corrosion resistance features were analysed from obtained Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel curves in 37 °C Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) mimicking the human blood plasma. Due to the CA values below 90°, the repellency limit for hydrophobicity and blood-repellency, bare specimens performed hydrophilic and blood-philic features. However, SWCNT coating increased the repellency functions to 95° for DIW and 96° for total blood. The electrochemical corrosion resistance analysis showed that 1.433 kΩ cm2 polarization resistance and 1.07 kΩ cm2 electrochemical impedance of bare specimens increased to 142.8 kΩ cm2 and 141.3 kΩ cm2 by SWCNT coating. These corrosion resistance enhancements led to ratios of 78.13% inhibition in the corrosion rate and mass loss rate per year for SWCNT-coated 316LVM specimens. The maximum inhibition efficiency was observed for SWCNT-coated 316LVM specimens with a ratio of 87.92%. Obtained results indicate that SWCNT coating of the intravascular stents can inhibit the ISR risks of the BMS group.