© 2021 Elsevier Inc.Bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) are cupped-shaped structures formed by bacteria in response to environmental stress, genetic alteration, antibiotic exposure, and others. Due to the structural similarities shared with the producer organism, they can retain certain characteristics like stimulating immune responses. They are also able to carry molecules for long distances, without changes in the concentration and integrity of the molecule. Bacteria originally secrete membrane vesicles for gene transfer, excretion, cell to cell interaction, pathogenesis, and protection against phages. These functions are unique and have several innovative applications in the pharmaceutical industry that have attracted both scientific and commercial interest.This led to the development of efficient methods to artificially stimulate vesicle production, purification, and manipulation in the lab at nanoscales. Also, for specific applications, engineering methods to impart pathogen antigens against specific diseases or customization as cargo vehicles to deliver payloads to specific cells have been reported. Many applications of BMVs are in cancer drugs, vaccines, and adjuvant development with several candidates in clinical trials showing promising results. Despite this, applications in therapy and commercialization stay timid probably due to some challenges one of which is the poor understanding of biogenesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, so far, BMVs seem to be a reliable and cost-efficient technology with several therapeutic applications. Research toward characterizing more membrane vesicles, genetic engineering, and nanotechnology will enable the scope of applications to widen. This might include solutions to other currently faced medical and healthcare-related challenges.