Geology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Genesis of Bentonite Deposits in Miocene Volcano-Sedimentary Units of the Balikesir Region, Western Anatolia, Turkey

KADİR S., KÜLAH T., ERKOYUN H., Christidis G. E., Arslanyan R.

CLAYS AND CLAY MINERALS, vol.67, no.5, pp.371-398, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 67 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s42860-019-00029-w
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.371-398
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


The widespread Balikesir bentonite deposits within the Miocene volcano-sedimentary units in western Anatolia have economic potential; they are important raw materials for the paper and bleaching industries in Turkey. No detailed geological, mineralogical, geochemical, or genesis characterizations of these bentonite deposits have been carried out to date. The present study was undertaken to close this gap. The mineralogical characteristics of the bentonites and their parent rocks were examined using polarized-light microscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning- and transmission-electron microscopies (SEM-EDX and TEM), and chemical (ICP-AES and -MS) methods. In the bentonite deposits, smectite is associated with smaller amounts of illite, chlorite, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, calcite, opal-CT, and amphibole. The smectite was identified by sharp basal reflections at 14.42-14.93 angstrom. Plagioclase and sanidine crystals in volcanic units are altered and sericitized. Biotite and hornblende are partly to completely Fe-(oxyhydr)oxidized and chloritized. Smectite flakes occur on altered feldspar and mica grains and devitrified volcanic glass fragments in association with or without calcite +/- dolomite crystals. Increasing Al+Fe+Mg/Si ratios with increasing degree of alteration reveal that hydration of volcanogenic grains (feldspar, mica, hornblende, glass shard) favored precipitation of smectite with montmorillonite composition, with an average structural formula: (Ca0.31Na0.05K0.08)(Al2.72Fe0.17Mg1.27Ti0.011Mn0.01)(Si7.94Al0.06)O-20(OH)(4). The concentration of Al2O3 and MgO and increase of LREE/HREE ratio, and a distinct, negative Eu anomaly show that smectite was probably formed as a result of the decomposition of volcanic feldspar, mica, amphibole, and volcanic glass. Association of carbonate rocks within the smectite-rich material and the absence of chlorite and detrital materials such as rock fragments in the bentonites suggest that the bentonite deposits formed authigenetically as 'primary bentonites' from volcanoclastic materials deposited in a calm lacustrine-palustrine environment during an early diagenetic process.