Lymphomas may be localised throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract, from oral cavity to rectum. The rectum is a fairly uncommon site for lymphoma compared to other gastrointestinal sites. Primary rectal lymphoma is the rarest disorder accounting for 0.1-0.6% of all colonic malignancies, and 0.05% of all primary rectal tumours. It is unclear whether surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or combinations of these treatments improve the prognosis and survival rate in such patients. The role of surgery in primary rectal lymphoma of the rectum is still controversial. A case of primary rectal lymphoma treated by a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is described.