Analysis of Lean Six Sigma tools from a multidimensional perspective


TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS EXCELLENCE, vol.30, pp.1167-1188, 2019 (SSCI) identifier identifier


The aim of this research is to analyse 68 Lean Six Sigma (LSS) tools from a three-dimensional perspective, i.e. in terms of their rate of implementation, necessity and sufficiency. Using comprehensive survey data gathered from 106 respondents who are Six Sigma team leaders and practitioners, this research conducted Ward's hierarchical clustering and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine and conclude on the implementation, necessity and sufficiency levels of the LSS tools. LDA helped to achieve a complex evaluation of the tools based on their positions on the three-dimensional space. The location of the tools is evaluated to provide a complete discussion on the LSS tools. The results revealed the fact that the most frequently used LSS tools are Pareto histograms, brainstorming, process flow maps, supplier-input-process-output-customer (SIPOC), control charts, plan-do-check-act and Ishikawa diagram, whereas, Pugh matrix, artificial neural networks, structural equation modelling, principal component analysis and Taguchi's loss function are among the least frequently used tools during LSS projects. Process flow diagram is used more than required, whereas design of experiments, lean tools, simulation techniques and process sigma reassessment are found as not being used as required. SIPOC, voice of customer and critical to quality are considered as not sufficient in addressing their particular goal.