Renal ischemia and reperfusion injury is the major cause of acute renal failure and may also be involved in the development and progression of some forms of chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether doxycycline, a member of the tetracycline family of antibiotics, protects kidney tissue or not. 36 Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used. The animals were divided into three groups: control, ischemia/reperfusion and ischemia/reperfusion+doxycycline group. Rats were subjected to renal ischemia by clamping the left pedicle for 1 h, and then reperfused for 1 h. The ischemia/reperfusion+doxycycline group were pretreated intraperitoneally with doxycycline suspension (10 mg/kg) 2 h before the induction of ischemia. Our results indicate that malondialdehyde, matrix-metalloproteinase-2, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin 1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were significantly higher in the ischemia/reperfusion group than those in the control group. Doxycycline administration significantly decreased these parameters. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 levels also increased after ischemia/reperfusion and decreased with doxycycline pretreatment, but these changes were not significantly different. Glutathione levels significantly decreased after ischemia/reperfusion injury when compared with the control group and doxycycline pretreatment significantly increased glutathione levels when compared with the ischemia/reperfusion group. Apoptotic cells and p53 positive cells were significantly decreased in doxycycline treated group. These results suggest that doxycycline reduces renal oxidative injury and facilitates repair. Doxycycline may play a role in a renoprotective therapeutic regimen.