© 2021 Elsevier LtdVarious nanocomposites of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) with different reinforcements, such as organo-montmorillonite (OMMT), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) were prepared by the solution blending method. The loading levels were 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% for NCC, while 1 wt% for OMMT and CNF. The effects of different reinforcements on the PBS resin were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), inverse gas chromatography (IGC), water contact angle (WCA) and nanoindentation tests in the aspects of the crystalline structure, thermal stability, the dispersive component of surface free energy, wettability, hardness, and elastic modulus. The morphological characterization of nanocomposites was carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the TGA analysis, the temperature at 5% weight loss of the NCC/PBS nanocomposite increased by 8 °C compared with that of neat PBS. The highest hydrophobicity and the best mechanical properties were achieved with OMMT/PBS nanocomposite. Nanoindentation tests indicated that OMMT incorporation increased modulus (~98%) and hardness (~99%) of PBS.