Correlation of Schmidt hardness with unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus in gypsum from Sivas (Turkey)

Yilmaz I., SENDİR H.

ENGINEERING GEOLOGY, vol.66, pp.211-219, 2002 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66
  • Publication Date: 2002
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0013-7952(02)00041-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.211-219
  • Keywords: Young's modulus, gypsum, Schmidt hardness, unconfined compressive strength
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to express the relationships between Schmidt rebound number (N) with unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus (Et) of the gypsum by empirical equations. As known, the Schmidt hammer has been used worldwide as an index test for a quick rock strength and deformability characterisation due to its rapidity and easiness in execution, simplicity, portability, low cost and nondestructiveness. In this study, gypsum samples have been collected from various locations in the Miocene-aged gypsum of Sivas Basin and tested. The tests include the determination of Schmidt hammer rebound number (N), tangent Young's modulus (E-t) and unconfined compressive strength. Finally, obtained parameters were correlated and regression equations were established among Schmidt hammer rebound hardness; tangent Young's modulus and unconfined compressive strength, presenting high coefficients of correlation. It appears that there is a possibility of estimating unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus of gypsum, from their Schmidt hammer rebound number by using the proposed empirical relationships of UCS=exp(0.818+0.059N) and E-t=exp(1.146+0.054N). However, the equations must be used only for the gypsum with an acceptable accuracy, especially at the preliminary stage of designing a structure. Finally, by using the obtained Schmidt hammer rebound number from this study, unconfined compressive strength was calculated and compared with the calculated value from different empirical equations proposed by different authors. It can be said that it is impossible to obtain only one relation for all types of the rocks. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.