Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a Faster Region- based Convolutional Neural Network (R- CNN) algorithm for tooth detection and numbering on periapical images. Methods: The data sets of 1686 randomly selected periapical radiographs of patients were collected retrospectively. A pre- trained model (GoogLeNet Inception v3 CNN) was employed for pre- processing, and transfer learning techniques were applied for data set training. The algorithm consisted of: (1) the Jaw classification model, (2) Region detection models, and (3) the Final algorithm using all models. Finally, an analysis of the latest model has been integrated alongside the others. The sensitivity, precision, true- positive rate, and false- positive/ negative rate were computed to analyze the performance of the algorithm using a confusion matrix. Results: An artificial intelligence algorithm (CranioCatch, Eskisehir- Turkey) was designed based on R- CNN inception architecture to automatically detect and number the teeth on periapical images. Of 864 teeth in 156 periapical radiographs, 668 were correctly numbered in the test data set. The F1 score, precision, and sensitivity were 0.8720, 0.7812, and 0.9867, respectively. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the potential accuracy and efficiency of the CNN algorithm for detecting and numbering teeth. The deep learning- based methods can help clinicians reduce workloads, improve dental records, and reduce turnaround time for urgent cases. This architecture might also contribute to forensic science.