In this study, we report on a 46-year-old female patient with bilateral severe gonarthrosis due to rheumatoid arthritis. Simultaneous bilateral cemented total knee arthroplasty was performed. Bilateral common peroneal nerve palsy was observed on the second postoperative day. The electromyographic diagnosis was "bilateral axonotmesis". Complete clinical and electromyographic motor recoveries were seen on both sides within 6 months postoperatively. The sensorial deficit was still present on one side at 2 years postoperatively. Preoperative severe flexion contracture and epidural anesthesia were assumed as the risk factors for the development of the nerve palsy in this patient.