Umbilical Artery Intima-Media and Wall Thickness in Infants of Diabetic Mothers

Sarikabadayi Y. U. , Aydemir Ö. , Kanmaz G., Aydemir C., Oguz S. S. , Erdeve O., ...More

NEONATOLOGY, vol.102, no.2, pp.157-162, 2012 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 102 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000339278
  • Title of Journal : NEONATOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.157-162


Background: Large for gestational age (LAG) neonates who had been exposed to an intrauterine environment of either diabetes or maternal obesity are at increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. This can be explained by exposure to high glucose and insulin levels in utero which alter fetal adaptation and programming. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the onset of preclinical atherosclerosis in utero. Methods: We measured umbilical artery wall thickness (ruWT) in the third trimester by obstetric ultrasound and umbilical artery intima-media thickness (uIMT) in pathologic specimens of umbilical cords obtained shortly after delivery and investigated the relation between these measurements and serum insulin level and C-peptide level in cord blood and assessed insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs), i.e. the study group, which was divided into a large for gestational age group (LGA)-IDM group and an appropriate for gestational age group (AGA)-IDM group and compared with a control group. Results: The LGA-IDM group had significantly higher insulin (p < 0.001), C-peptide (p = 0.018) and HOMA-IR levels (p < 0.001) compared with the AGA-IDM and control groups. The LGA-IDM group had significantly larger ruWT (p = 0.013) and uIMT (p < 0.001) compared with the AGA-IDM and the control groups. The LGA-IDM group had increased uIMT and ruWT that correlated with the severity of maternal hyperglycemia. Conclusions: Measurement of ruWT in the third trimester is feasible, reproducible and strongly correlated with pathological serum insulin, C-peptide in cord blood and HOMA-IR levels. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel