In this study, variation in seed quality in relation to fruit maturity and post-harvest ripening of. fruits were determined in two pepper cultivars (hot pepper and conic red pepper). Fruits were harvested at three maturation stages (40, 60 and 80 days after anthesis) and seeds were extracted at 1, 10 and 20 days after each harvest. Fruit weight, seed moisture content, seed dry weight, 1000-seed weight, germination at 25 and 15 degrees C and vigour (controlled deterioration test at 24% MC and 45 degrees C for 24h) were determined. The seeds extracted from fruits harvested at 40 days after anthesis (DAA) had less than 50% germination in both cultivars. However, when seeds were extracted from fruits ripened for 10 and 20 days after harvest, their viability and the vigour increased to 81% and 89% in hot pepper and 77% and 89% in red pepper, respectively. Seeds from 60 DAA fruits achieved the maximum germination and vigour levels in both cultivars. Delayed harvest (80 DAA) resulted in a significant decline in seed quality.