Does urination position have an effect on evaluation of lower urinary tract function in children? A uroflowmetric study

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Ibrahimov A., ÖZKIDIK M., AKINCI A., Hajiyev P., BURGU B.

AFRICAN JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, vol.28, no.1, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1186/s12301-022-00299-2
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Micturition, Toilet training, Urination position, Uroflowmetry, Voiding dysfunction, PARAMETERS
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Background We aimed to determine whether different urination positions had significant impact on the parameters of uroflowmetry performed by healthy individuals and children with voiding dysfunction. Methods The study was conducted with a prospective and comparative design. Children between 5 and 15 years of age who met the inclusion-exclusion criteria of the study were enrolled. Children in the study were divided into two groups. Participants whose voiding dysfunction symptom score was >= 9 points were classified in group 1 and the remaining individuals were classified in group 2. Girls urinated in two different positions as sitting and squatting while boys urinated in three different positions as sitting, squatting and standing. Also, habitual urination position was asked and recorded for each individual participated in the study. Uroflowmetry parameters were compared for different urination positions in two groups separately and a p value of <= .05 was accepted for statistical significance. Results Voided volume, maximum flow rate (Qmax), time to reach Qmax, urination time and postvoid residual volume measured by abdominal ultrasound were recorded in every participant for each urination position in both groups. In group 1, girls with voiding dysfunction presented a significantly higher postvoid residual volume in squatting position compared to sitting position (the p value = 0.02). In group 2, healthy boys presented a significantly higher Qmax in standing position compared to sitting and squatting positions (the p value = 0.01). All participants provided a better uroflowmetry pattern in their habitual urination positions. Conclusion Urination position may affect uroflowmetry results; however, its impact on lower urinary tract function requires further research.