The cement dust is one of the causes of pollution in the environment. In the present study, the cadmium concentrations of soil and plant specimens taken from a rural area exposed to cement factory emissions were determined and also the blood concentrations and sensitivity conditions in humans residing in this rural area were investigated. The 108 soil (36 for control) and plant specimens were collected from eight different directions of the cement plant located in Cukurhisar town in Eskisehir city. Blood samples of the individuals residing in this area were taken from 258 subjects (258 for control) following a physical examination, and patch tests were also applied. The results show that the cadmium concentrations of the soil and plant specimens taken from different places in different directions of the factory were higher than in the control areas. The physical examination of subjects did not reveal results different from those of the control group except for the diagnosis of contact dermatitis. The analysis of venous blood samples showed that cadmium concentrations were found to be within the reference values given for both groups, but higher in the subjects (p. < 0.001). According to the results of patch tests, sensitivity to cadmium was found to be more frequent for the subject group than the control group (p < 0.05).