Representation plurality and fusion for 3-D face recognition

Goekberk B., Dutagaci H., Ulas A., Akarun L., Sankur B.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS MAN AND CYBERNETICS PART B-CYBERNETICS, vol.38, pp.155-173, 2008 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 38
  • Publication Date: 2008
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/tsmcb.2007.908865
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.155-173
  • Keywords: classifier selection, face representation, feature extraction, fusion, independent component analysis (ICA), non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), 3-D face recognition, 3D, PARTS, SHAPE
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: No


In this paper, we present an extensive study of 3-D face recognition algorithms and examine the benefits of various score-, rank-, and decision-level fusion rules. We investigate face recognizers from two perspectives: the data representation techniques used and the feature extraction algorithms that match best each representation type. We also consider novel applications of various feature extraction techniques such as discrete Fourier transform, discrete cosine transform, nonnegative matrix factorization, and principal curvature directions to the shape modality. We discuss and compare various classifier combination methods such as fixed rules and voting- and rank-based fusion schemes. We also present a dynamic confidence estimation algorithm to boost fusion performance. In identification experiments performed on FRGC v1.0 and FRGC v2.0 face databases, we have tried to find the answers to the following questions: 1) the relative importance of the face representation techniques vis-a-vis the types of features extracted; 2) the impact of the gallery size; 3) the conditions, under which subspace methods are preferable, and the compression factor; 4) the most advantageous fusion level and fusion methods; 5) the role of confidence votes in improving fusion and the style of selecting experts in the fusion; and 6) the consistency of the conclusions across different databases.