© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V. part of Springer Nature.This research was performed to examine the effects of different slaughter weights (SWs) on some meat quality traits of Anatolian Buffaloes (n = 20). Weaned 5-month-old Anatolian Buffalo calves with an average live weight of 100 kg were used as the animal material of the study. Experimental calves were randomly divided into four different slaughter weight groups 200 kg (SW-1: n = 5), 250 kg (SW-2: n = 5), 300 kg (SW-3: n = 5), and 350 kg (SW-4: n = 5). Anatolian buffalo calves were fed with 30:70 roughage/concentrate feed ration. Meat quality attributes of musculus longissimus dorsi thoracis (LT) muscle of calves slaughtered at target slaughter weight were investigated. The quality traits included 45th minute pH (pH45min), 24th hour pH (pH24h), 1st and 24th hour color parameters (L* (lightness), a* (redness) and b* (yellowness), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (3rd day (DL-3) and 7th day (DL-7)), freeze-thaw loss (FTL), cooking loss (CL), chemical composition), fatty acid, and cholesterol profiles. The differences in LT muscle pH24h, 24th hour a* and b* color parameters and WHC values of SW groups were not found to be significant (P > 0.05). The lowest DL-3 was observed in SW-1 (6.89%) and the greatest in SW-2 (8.96%) groups. Ether extract (EE) ratios increased (P < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)/saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportions decreased (P > 0.05) with increasing SWs. The differences in total cholesterol contents of SW groups were not detected to be significant (P > 0.05). Among the SW groups of Anatolian Buffaloes, SW-1 was found to be prominent with high WHC, CP, and PUFA/SFA ratio and the least DL-3 ratio.