The wear resistance characteristics of AISI 51B60H and 30MnB5 steels with different carbon and boron contents were investigated. The analysis of the microstructure and hardness of steels was carried out. The specific wear rates in the conditions of dry and wet friction were calculated, and the friction coefficients were determined. The worn surfaces of rail samples were studied by electron microscopy. The possibility of using boron steels instead of R260 steel, which is used for manufacturing high-speed railways, was considered.