Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the peritoneum with about 250 new cases diagnosed each year in the United States. It is the second most common site for mesothelioma development and accounts for 10-20% of all mesotheliomas diagnosed in the United States. A meeting sponsored by the NIH Office of Rare Diseases was held in Bethesda, Maryland on September 13 and 14, 2004. The objective of this meeting was to review the epidemiology, biology and current surgical and medical management of peritoneal mesothelioma. In addition, the meeting also discussed clinical and pre-clinical evaluation of novel treatments for mesothelioma as well as ongoing laboratory research to better understand this disease. This report summarizes the proceedings of the meeting as well as directions for future clinical and basic research.