The study aimed to calculate years of life lost (YLL) and years of potential life lost (YPLL) due to malignant mesothelioma (MM) in Turkey. YLL was computed by estimating the difference between age at death due to MM and the expected death age. To calculate YPLL, all deaths above 65 years (retirement age) were disregarded. Of the 5,617 deaths due to MM in the study period, 3,241 (57.70%) were male and 2,376 (42.30%) were female. The median YLL and YPLL were 16.58 and 25.13 for males and 19.83 and 28.50 years for females. YLL and YPLL were shorter in males than females (p < 0.001). Premature mortality cost per death was $ 45,963.57 (2.23 times higher for males). MM is associated with high YLL, YPLL and economic burden in a country with environmental asbestos exposure in the rural areas.