In this study, the detailed pollen morphological structures of some endemic Turkish species of Centaurea amaena Boiss., C. antalyense H. Duman & A. Duran, C. aphrodisea Boiss., C. hierapolitana Boiss., C. luschaniana Heimerl, C. lycia Boiss., C. tossiensis Freyn. Et Sint., and C. wagenitzii Hub.-Mor. (Asteraceae, section Phaloletis) were studied under light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the first time. LM and SEM investigations showed that the pollen grains of eight taxa are more or less spheroidal-subprolate, the amb triangular and tricolporate. The exine sculpture is tectate, microechinate-scabrate in the pollen of Centaurea taxa. Spinules are less dense in Centaurea amaena, C. antalyense, C. hierapolitana, and C. lycia, but they are more dense in C. aphrodisea, C. luschaniana, C. tossiensis, and C. wagenitzii. Spinule dimensions are different from each other. The exine has one layer of columellae beneath the spines. We determined all taxa that have the Helianthoid type. Exine sctructure and sculpture as well as spine density and dimensions in Asteraceae are the most reliable characteristics for discriminating taxa.