We assessed the use of antileukotrienes for treating adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We reviewed the current literature on the anatomy of adenotonsillar tissue, adenotonsillar hypertrophy/hyperplasia (and the associated pathophysiology and symptoms), and the effects of antileukotrienes used to treat adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators produced by a number of cell types, including mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, and monocytes. There are several types (e.g., LTA4, LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4). By competitive binding to the cysLT1 receptor, LT-receptor antagonist drugs such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast block the effects of cySHLTs, improving the symptoms of some chronic respiratory diseases. High numbers of LT receptors have been found in the tonsils of children with obstructive sleep apnea. Antileukotrienes reduce the apnea-hypopnea index and adenotonsillar inflammation. Antileukotrienes may be useful for children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy due to their anti-inflammatory effects, which help to reduce adenotonsillar inflammation.