Sixteen new 2-(benzothiazol-2-ylthio)-N-(3-substituted-4-(3,4-substitutedphenyl)thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)acetohydrazide derivatives (4a-4p) were synthesized. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated using FT-IR, H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR, and HRMS spectral data. Anticancer activity of the compounds 4a-4p against C6 (rat brain glioma) and A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cell lines was evaluated by using MTT, inhibition of DNA synthesis, and flow cytometric analysis assays. According to MTT assay, 4a and 4d were found to be the most active compounds against C6 cell line with an IC50 value of 0.03mM. Moreover, IC50 values of 4a (0.2 mM) and 4d (0.1 mM) against NIH3T3 (mouse embryo fibroblast cell line) were higher than their IC50 values (0.03 mM) against C6 cell line. Accordingly, selectivity of compound 4a against C6 cell line was two-fold higher than that of compound 4d. Flow cytometry analysis showed that these compounds display anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis. As a result, compound 4a has a remarkable anticancer activity and a good selectivity towards C6 cell lines.