COVID-19 severity and vaccine breakthrough infections in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, other systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and healthy controls: a multicenter cross-sectional study from the COVID-19 Vaccination in Autoimmune Diseases (COVAD) survey.

Hoff L. S., Ravichandran N., Shinjo S. K., Day J., Sen P., Junior J. G., ...More

Rheumatology international, vol.43, no.1, pp.47-58, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00296-022-05229-7
  • Journal Name: Rheumatology international
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.47-58
  • Keywords: Autoimmune diseases, Breakthrough infection, COVID-19, Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, PEOPLE, CARE, RARE
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives We aimed to compare the spectrum and severity of COVID-19 and vaccine breakthrough infections (BIs) among patients with IIMs, other systemic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (SAIDs), and healthy controls (HCs). Methods This is a cross-sectional study with data from the COVAD study, a self-reported online global survey that collected demographics, COVID-19 history, and vaccination details from April to September 2021. Adult patients with at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose were included. BIs were defined as infections occurring > 2 weeks after any dose of vaccine. Characteristics associated with BI were analyzed with a multivariate regression analysis. Results Among 10,900 respondents [42 (30-55) years, 74%-females, 45%-Caucasians] HCs were (47%), SAIDs (42%) and IIMs (11%). Patients with IIMs reported fewer COVID-19 cases before vaccination (6.2%-IIM vs 10.5%-SAIDs vs 14.6%-HC; OR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, and OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.5, respectively). BIs were uncommon (1.4%-IIM; 1.9%-SAIDs; 3.2%-HC) and occurred in 17 IIM patients, 13 of whom were on immunosuppressants, and 3(18%) required hospitalization. All-cause hospitalization was higher in patients with IIM compared to HCs [23 (30%) vs 59 (8%), OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.2-5.1 before vaccination, and 3 (18%) vs 9 (5%), OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.3 in BI]. In a multivariate regression analysis, age 30-60 years was associated with a lower odds of BI (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0), while the use of immunosuppressants had a higher odds of BI (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.7). Conclusions Patients with IIMs reported fewer COVID-19 cases than HCs and other SAIDs, but had higher odds of all-cause hospitalization from COVID-19 than HCs. BIs were associated with the use of immunosuppressants and were uncommon in IIMs.