Effect of Encapsulation Techniques on Aroma Retention of Pistacia terebinthus L. Fruit Oil: Spray Drying, Spray Freeze Drying, and Freeze Drying

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Yaman D. M., Koçak Yanık D., Elik Demir A., Uzun Karka H., GÜÇLÜ G., SELLİ S., ...More

Foods, vol.12, no.17, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 17
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/foods12173244
  • Journal Name: Foods
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: aroma, encapsulation, fruit oil, spray drying, spray freeze-drying
  • Eskisehir Osmangazi University Affiliated: No


The primary aim of this investigation was to assess the impact of varying the ratio of gum arabic to maltodextrin and employing diverse encapsulation techniques on the properties of the powdered substance and the capacity to retain the aromatic attributes of terebinth fruit oil. Distinct ratios of gum arabic to maltodextrin (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were employed to fabricate oil-in-water emulsions. The utmost stability of the emulsion was realized at a gum arabic to maltodextrin ratio of 75:25, characterized by a minimal creaming index and an even and small-scale dispersion. The encapsulation techniques employed included spray drying (SD), spray freeze-drying (SFD), and freeze-drying (FD). These methodologies were compared based on encapsulation efficiency, desiccation yield, powder attributes, and the capacity to retain aroma. The encapsulation efficiencies were notably higher (>90%) in SD, particularly with the application of an ultrasonic nozzle and a two-fluidized nozzle (2FN), in contrast to those obtained through SFD and FD. Notably, SD employing an ultrasonic nozzle exhibited superior preservation of volatiles (73.19%) compared to FD (24.45%), SD-2FN (62.34%), and SFD (14.23%). Among the various components, α-pinene and linalool stood out with near-perfect retention rates, close to 100%.